Ménière's Disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear, characterised by vertigo, tinnitus and hearing loss. Ménière's Disease is a long term, progressive disease which damages both the balance and hearing parts of the inner ear.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the lining (meninges) which covers the spinal cord and the brain.
Common symptoms are usually high fever, headache, stiff neck and a red/purple rash which remains when pressed and looked at through a glass tumbler.
Meningitis is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection, or is occasionally due to a fungal infection.
Viral meningitis can be very unpleasant, but is generally less severe and is usually without long-term effects.
Bacterial meningitis is more serious and, although some do make a full recovery, others may be left with problems such as long-term brain damage, hearing loss and epilepsy.
The meningococcal bacterium that causes meningitis can also cause septicaemia (blood poisoning). If a patient has some symptoms of both meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, then together these two forms of the disease are known as meningococcal disease.
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Primary: the brain fails to grow to the correct size during pregnancy
Secondary: the brain is the expected size at birth but subsequently fails to grow normally
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14(1) February 2004
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Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition, which often strikes without warning. It affects different people in different ways, but common symptoms include an intense, throbbing headache (usually on one-side of the head), sensitivity to light and noise, nausea or vomiting. Visual disturbances, or aura, are also common.
Motor Neuron Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Motor Neurone Disease is an uncommon disease, which causes a progressive degeneration of the motor system (the nerve cells that controls the muscles). It is a slowly progressive disease, whose common systems include muscle wasting/weakness, muscle cramps and difficulty with swallowing and with speech.
Motor Neurone Disease - Legacy Research Olly is a PhD Researcher at Edge Hill University in Ormskirk, Lancashire, and has a specific research interest in young people who help care for family members who have MND, and also those young people who are bereaved due to the disease. www.facebook.com/mndlegacy
The library at The Brain Charity has a range of reference resources on this condition and on a wide range of disability-related issues.
Multiple Sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disorder affecting young adults. MS occurs as the result of damage to myelin - the protective sheath surrounding nerve fibres of the central nervous system. This damage interferes with messages between the brain and other parts of the body.
MSA is caused by the degeneration of cells in certain areas of the brain, which control different body systems. This cell degeneration causes problems with movement, balance and automatic functions of the body, such as bladder control.
The muscular dystrophies are a group of neuromuscular disorders. These conditions are characterised by the loss of muscle strength, as progressive muscle wasting or nerve deterioration occurs. Many, but not all, are inherited.
Please see the Muscular Dystrophy website to find details of all types of neuromuscular conditions.
M.E. is a potentially chronic and disabling neurological disorder, which is characterised by persistent fatigue and muscle pain. Symptoms can include cognitive problems such as loss of memory and concentration, recurrent sore throat and enlarged neck glands, disturbed sleep patterns and persistent headaches.
Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune disease, which results in a breakdown in communication between nerve and muscle. This results in a loss of effectiveness of the muscle. The progression and severity of the disease vary widely. Some patients only ever develop eye muscle weakness - this is called ocular myasthenia. Others also have more widespread weakness - generalised myasthenia.
Ocular Myasthenia Gravis - confined to eye muscles