"PANDAS is a subset of PANS. Similarly, it is a neuropsychiatric condition which is triggered by a misdirected immune response to a Streptococcal infection which results in an inflammation of a child's brain.
"Usually starting with an acute onset of obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics, particularly multiple, complex or unusual tics."
"Sydenham chorea is a movement disorder occurring in conjunction with rheumatic fever, an inflammatory condition that may develop in children after an infection with Streptococcus A bacteria.
"Chorea describes a disorder of constant, abrupt, involuntary movements and this is a common symptom. Muscle weakness is present in all affected individuals with varying severity. Difficulties with eye movements, voice, and hand movements also occur. Swings in mood and other disturbances of feelings have been described. Children may develop features of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the full disorder (known as Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections or PANDAS), might not develop."
A progressive neurological condition, which can affect talking, walking, swallowing, writing etc. Characterised by slowness in the initiation and performance of movement, and sometimes tremor, usually at rest.
• Patient Online Survey: Swallowing difficulties in people with Parkinson's disease (NCEPOD, January 2020) The survey will lead to a report for healthcare professionals on how they can improve care https://tinyurl.com/ujgkytr
The library at The Brain Charity has a range of resources on Parkinson's and on a wide range of disability-related issues. For example, visitors to our library can read lots about diet and Parkinson's.
Disorders of the pituitary gland are relatively rare. The most common problem of the pituitary gland is when a benign tumour develops (a form of pituitary adenoma). Symptoms include headaches and visual problems.
Some of the problems related to the pituitary gland are listed below. For more information see the Pituitary Foundation.
Acromegaly is caused by overproduction of the growth hormone in adults.
Craniopharyngioma is a rare tumour of the pituitary region, which exerts pressure on the hypothalamus and often on the pituitary gland.
Cushings's Disease is a problem arising in the pituitary gland, caused by the overproduction of the hormone ACTH. This leads to the overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands.
Hypopituitarism is the underproduction of one or more of the hormones in the pituitary gland; most often caused by a benign tumour.
Non-functioning tumour is the commonest type of tumour in the pituitary gland. It does not produce any hormones itself, but can cause other problems, such as headaches.
Diabetes Insipidus or Vasopressin Insufficiency: This condition should not be confused with Diabetes Mellitus
'Post-polio syndrome' describes a condition where some polio surviviors re-present (on average 30 years after their original illness) with further deterioration in functional ability, increased pain and increased muscle weakness.
PTSD is a mental health condition. Mental health conditions are problems with the way you think and feel. Neurological conditions are problems with your brain, spine, or nervous system. Neurological conditions can sometimes lead to mental health problems.
"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder which you may develop after being involved in, or witnessing, traumatic events. The condition was first recognised in war veterans and has been known by a variety of names, such as 'shell shock'. But it's not only diagnosed in soldiers – a wide range of traumatic experiences can cause PTSD.
"Symptoms of PTSD include:
"Reliving aspects of what happended. This can include vivid flashbacks
"Alertness or feeling on edge. This can include panicking when reminded of the trauma.
"Avoiding feelings or memories. This can include feeling emotionally numb or cut off from your feelings."
Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder, which is present from birth. It is characterised by a number of behavioural and psychological features, including low muscle tone, excessive appetite (leading to obesity if not controlled), and immature physical development . Most have borderline or moderate learning difficulties.
PSP is a progressive brain disease, leading to the death of nerve endings (neurons) in the area of the brain controlling balance, vision, movement, speech and swallowing. Symptoms reflect problems in these areas; however, the severity and progression varies considerably from one individual to another.