Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Head Injury
Symptoms of Brain Injury
An injury to the head or face, resulting in trauma to the brain. The brain injury may be mild to severe, and the subsequent impact can likewise be from mild, short-term problems to permanent problems including emotional and behavioural changes, cognitive effects and physical disability.
Cavernous Angioma, Cavernous Haemangioma, or Cerebral Cavernous Malformation
Symptoms of Cavernoma
A cavernoma is a cluster of abnormal blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. They are not cancerous and for many people they are asymptomatic (no symptoms). For those who do have symptoms they can include haemorrhages, seizures, headaches, tremor and other neurological deficits.
Centronuclear and myotubular myopathy are rare inherited neuromuscular diseases of which there are three forms: x-linked, autosomal recessive, and autosomal dominant. The conditions manifest themselves as defects in the cell structure of voluntary muscles, causing low muscle tone and affecting children and adults at various stages in life.
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Cerebral Palsy is a disorder of movement and posture. It is due to damage to, or failure in, the areas of the brain which control movement. The effects vary from individual to individual; difficulties include awkwardness in walking, or of hand and arm movements, or speech.
Spastic Cerebral Palsy - stiffens muscles and decreases range of movement of joints.
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy - frequent involuntary movements, speech hard to understand and hearing problems are common.
Ataxic Cerebral Palsy - difficult to balance, poor spatial awareness.
"A cerebrospinal fluid leak occurs when there is a tear or hole in the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, and the fluid that surrounds these structures escapes. As a result of this leak, the overall pressure within the skull can drop (which is referred to as intracranial hypotension) and this can cause headaches as well as other neurological symptoms."
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease is a condition which affects the peripheral nerves (in the arms and legs) and leads to progressive muscle weakness. Both the sensory nerves, which send messages back to the brain about touch and feel, and motor nerves, controlling movement, are affected.
Syringomyelia is a disorder affecting the nervous system, where fluid-filled cavities develop inside the spinal cord. A variety of conditions lead to the formation of syringomyelia cavities. The most common factor is obstruction to the normal flow of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid within the spinal cord). Possible causes include Hindbrain Hernia, also referred to as Chiari Malformation, and spinal cord injury.
Symptoms vary, ranging from neck and arm pain, through to fairly severe disability, with muscle weakness and paralysis.
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M.E. is a potentially chronic and disabling neurological disorder, which is characterised by persistent fatigue and muscle pain. Symptoms can include cognitive problems such as loss of memory and concentration, recurrent sore throat and enlarged neck glands, disturbed sleep patterns and persistent headaches.
Cluster Headache is an excruciating pain that affects one side of the head. Each attack develops suddenly, usually without any warning. Attacks last from 15 minutes to 3 hours and usually occur in clusters - several attacks over a few weeks or months and then they stop for a while.
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CRPS is a chronic pain disorder, which can occur after trivial injury, often involving soft tissue around joints. The pain is extremely severe, and far outweighs that normally produced by tissue damage. It can go into spontaneous remission or be a long-lasting problem.
Type I - CRPS I, also known as RSD (when there is no identifiable nerve injury) Type II - CRPS II is what used to be known as Causalgia (where there is an identifiable nerve injury)
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CJD is a rare, untreatable, fatal illness affecting the brain. It is one type of the group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). CJD is divided into four different forms, which all have different causes and symptoms, but they all have the same basic disease process of the accumulation of abnormal prion protein in the brain tissue:
Sporadic CJD, of unknown cause and occurs mainly in the middle-aged and elderly.
Genetic CJD, very rare and due to an inherited genetic defect.
Iatrogenic CJD, results from accidental transmission by medical or surgical equipment.
Variant CJD (vCJD) - a new form of the disease, which has emerged in recent years, linked to a prion disease which affects cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE. Variant CJD appears to affect younger people.
Dementia is a term used to describe various different brain disorders, that have in common a loss of brain function that is usually progressive and eventually severe. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease.
Symptoms of dementia include loss of memory, confusion and problems with speech.
"Dysautonomia is an umbrella term used to describe several different medical conditions that cause a malfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System. The Autonomic Nervous System controls the "automatic" functions of the body that we do not consciously think about, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eye, kidney function, and temperature control.
"Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disorder that is characterised by impairments in learning basic arithmetic facts, processing numerical magnitude and performing accurate and fluent calculations. these difficulties must be quantifiably below what is expected for an individual’s chronological age, and [is not] caused by poor educational or daily activities or by intellectual impairments"
Dyslexia is a specific kind of learning difficulty, where a child of normal intelligence has persistent and significant problems with reading, writing and spelling, and sometimes with arithmetic and musical notation.
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Dyspraxia is a developmental disorder of organisation and planning of physical movement. Developmental dyspraxia (see below) affects co-ordination, spatial awareness, perception, language and short-term memory.
Developmental dyspraxia is when someone is born with dyspraxia.
Acquired dyspraxia can be caused by a stroke or head injury.