Fibromyalgia means "pain coming from the muscles and fibrous tissues" (such as tendons and ligaments), and the condition is characterised by muscle aches and pains. Other symptoms often include fatigue, sleep disturbance and headache.
"[Fragile X] is the most common cause of inherited learning disability. It affects boys and girls and causes a wide range of problems with learning and behaviour, from mild to severe. Boys are usually more seriously affected than girls. FXS is caused by an alteration in a particular gene that lies on the X chromosome."
Functional Movement Disorders NEAD (Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder)
Symptoms of Functional Neurological Disorder
"Approximately one-sixth of all patients seen by the neurology service will receive a diagnosis of functional neurological symptoms. This condition is also called 'medically unexplained neurological symptoms'.
"This common condition covers a range of symptoms but most often people experience changes in their ability to move and feel their limbs. People may experience difficulty with walking, balance, problems controlling and moving arms and legs, and experience odd or unpleasant sensations in the body like tingling or pain. Symptoms may fluctuate or be there most of the time causing a lot of distress.
"The difference between functional neurological symptoms and other neurological conditions such as “multiple sclerosis” or “Parkinson’s disease” is that functional neurological symptoms are not caused by structural disease of the nervous system (brain, spine and nerves). The structure of the body is still well and has no damage but the function of it is not working."
GBS is an inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves - those outside the brain and spinal cord. It is characterised by the rapid onset of muscle weakness and loss of sensation, and in serious cases can lead to paralysis of the legs, arms, breathing muscles and face. Recovery usually begins within 2-3 weeks, and only a minority of cases have long-lasting problems.
CIDP (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy) is a similar, but longer lasting condition.
Statement from MHRA on flu vaccinations (December 2018) "Suggestions that flu vaccines may cause GBS can be pinpointed to a very specific type of vaccine given to patients in the USA in 1976. The vaccine was not used in any other countries and a theory was that this risk was due to a contaminant in that particular type of vaccine." https://tinyurl.com/ybb5kkn7
Hemiplegia is a condition, the effects of which are similar to a stroke. It is caused by damage to the brain (most often before or around the time of birth) and it results in a varying degree of weakness and lack of control on one side of the body. In one child this may be very obvious (he or she may have little use of one hand, may limp or have poor balance); in another child it will be so slight that it only shows when attempting specific physical activities.
Approximately half the children have additional diagnoses such as epilepsy, visual impairment or speech difficulties. Other challenges can include perceptual problems, specific learning difficulties or emotional and behavioural problems.
An hereditary, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, which causes emotional, intellectual and movement problems. The course of Huntington's is characterised by involuntary movement of the limbs, trunk, and face, progressive loss of mental abilities, and the development of psychiatric problems.
Huntington's Disease usually appears in middle age (30-50 years), but can develop in younger and older people.
Juvenile HD refers to anyone who develops symptoms of the disease before the age of 20. Those affected often experience more muscle rigidity than when developed in adulthood.
Useful national contacts
Hydrocephalus is caused by a build up of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. It can occur in association with Spina Bifida. Other causes include infections such as meningitis, premature birth, a head injury or a stroke. Hydrocephalus can lead to problems with skills such as concentration, short-term memory, organisation and co-ordination.
Useful national contacts
Shine (formerly ASBAH, the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus) www.shinecharity.org.uk Helpline: 01733 555988CSF Leak Association Charity working to raise the profile and support understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and provides support to sufferers and carers. www.csfleak.info
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (I.I.H.) is a condition that is defined by increased intracranial pressure from increased blood flow to the blood vessels around the brain, but without the presence of tumour or disease. Often the sheath around the optic nerve (the nerve to the eyes) is swollen, which can cause sight problems and even blindness.
It is also known as Pseudotumor Cerebri (PTC), because some sufferers present with signs and symptoms of a brain tumour despite no tumour being present ('pseudo' meaning false).
The Leukodystrophies are a group of genetic disorders, which are generally diagnosed in childhood. Caused by a breakdown of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cells in the brain. There are several forms, and the most common symptoms are a slowdown in mental and physical development
Metachromatic leukodystrohy Refsum's disease Adrenoleukodysrophy Krabbe's disease Phenylketonuria Canavan disease Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease Alexander's disease Cerebrotendinous Zxanthomatosis (CTX) Juvenile HD (also called Westphal variant or akinetic-rigid HD) develops before the age of 20, progresses rapidly, and produces muscle rigidity in which the patient moves little, if at all (akinesia).
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The library at The Brain Charity has a range of resources on Lyme Disease and on a wide range of disability-related issues. This includes copies of the Lyme Disease Association's pamphlet "Ticks and Lyme Disease".
Ménière's Disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear, characterised by vertigo, tinnitus and hearing loss. Ménière's Disease is a long term, progressive disease which damages both the balance and hearing parts of the inner ear.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the lining (meninges) which covers the spinal cord and the brain.
Common symptoms are usually high fever, headache, stiff neck and a red/purple rash which remains when pressed and looked at through a glass tumbler.
Meningitis is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection, or is occasionally due to a fungal infection.
Viral meningitis can be very unpleasant, but is generally less severe and is usually without long-term effects.
Bacterial meningitis is more serious and, although some do make a full recovery, others may be left with problems such as long-term brain damage, hearing loss and epilepsy.
The meningococcal bacterium that causes meningitis can also cause septicaemia (blood poisoning). If a patient has some symptoms of both meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, then together these two forms of the disease are known as meningococcal disease.
Useful national contacts
Men ACWY vaccine (NHS Choices) Young teenagers and 'fresher' students going to university for the first time are advised to have a vaccination to prevent meningitis W disease. https://tinyurl.com/qh2b5me
Primary: the brain fails to grow to the correct size during pregnancy
Secondary: the brain is the expected size at birth but subsequently fails to grow normally
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14(1) February 2004
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Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition, which often strikes without warning. It affects different people in different ways, but common symptoms include an intense, throbbing headache (usually on one-side of the head), sensitivity to light and noise, nausea or vomiting. Visual disturbances, or aura, are also common.
Motor Neuron Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Symptoms of Motor Neurone Disease
Motor Neurone Disease is an uncommon disease, which causes a progressive degeneration of the motor system (the nerve cells that controls the muscles). It is a slowly progressive disease, whose common systems include muscle wasting/weakness, muscle cramps and difficulty with swallowing and with speech.
Multiple Sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disorder affecting young adults. MS occurs as the result of damage to myelin - the protective sheath surrounding nerve fibres of the central nervous system. This damage interferes with messages between the brain and other parts of the body.